Mus musculus Gene: Il1b
InnateDB Gene IDBG-57449.1
Last Modified 2018-06-05 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol Il1b
Gene Name Interleukin-1 beta
Synonyms Il-1b; IL-1beta;
Species Mus musculus
Ensembl Gene ENSMUSG00000027398
Encoded Proteins
Interleukin-1 beta
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
InnateDB Annotation
Il1b acts as a growth factor for neutrophil progenitors and as a survival factor for mature neutrophils. In the absence of Ikbkb, the Il1b production is enhanced and provides a compensatory mechanism for maintaining antibacterial defense when NFKB is inhibited.
Il1b secretion in macrophages is regulated by autophagy by two mechanisms; sequestering of pro-Il1b in autophagosome during TLR stimulation, and processing/secretion of Il1b in a Nlrp3- and TRIF-dependent manner.
Il1b secretion is induced only during viable E. coli infection (as oppose to heat-killed E. coli or LPS), viable bacteria specifically elicit cleavage of pro-Il1b.
Il1b derived from alveolar macrophages is the critical mediator which induces chemokine production in nonhematopoietic cells in the lung, resulting in swift and robust recruitment of infection-controlling neutrophils into the airways.
Il1b secretion is tightly regulated by the redox status in myeloid cells. TLR engagement in monocytes induces ROS generation followed by a sustained antioxidant response and efficient Il1b secretion. In macrophages, the antioxidant systems are in an upregulated state, and therefore buffers the TLR induction of the redox response, which results in low Il1b processing and secretion. (Demonstrated in human)
Il1b is an inflammatory cytokine that binds to its primary receptor, Il1r1, that then recruits the accessory protein Il1rap to form a signalling-competent heterotrimeric complex. (Demonstrated in human)
Under acidic conditions both pro-inflammatory forms of Il1a and Il1b are regulated independently of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Group B streptococcus induces Il1b, and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by a mechanism that requires hemolysin-mediated lysosomal leakage, which enhances the interaction of bacterial RNA with NLRP3.
Actin polymerization is required for Nlrc4-dependent regulation of intracellular bacterial burden, inflammasome assembly, pyroptosis, and Il1b production.
Autophagy causes PELI3 degradation during Tlr4-signalling, subsequently inhibiting Il1b expression and impairing the hyperinflammatory phase during sepsis.
Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome is detrimental during leishmaniasis. Mice lacking the inflammasome components Nlrp3, Pycard, Casp1 exhibit defective Il1b and Il18 production at the infection site and are resistant to cutaneous Leishmania major infection.
Escherichia coli toxin CNF1 promotes the maturation/secretion of Il1b while the α-hemolysin toxin inhibits Il1b secretion without affecting the recruitment of Ly6g+ cells.
Mirlet7f and its target Tnfaip3 regulate immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and control bacterial burden by augmenting the production of Tnf and Il1b.
Defb1 is important for the control of early mucosal Candida infection and plays a critical role in the induction of innate inflammatory mediators including, Il1b, Il6, Cxcl1, Il17a, and Il17f.
Type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells suppress Il1b transcription and Casp1 activation via an IL10R ??dependent mechanism.
NLRP3 inflammasome formation is dispensable for alum-induced innate immunity but Il1a and Il1b are both necessary for alum-induced neutrophil influx in vivo.
Entrez Gene
Summary The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1. The encoded protein plays a role in thymocyte proliferation and is involved in the inflammatory response. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 2:129364570-129371139
Strand Reverse strand
Band F1
ENSMUST00000028881 ENSMUSP00000028881
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 25 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 41 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 25 [view]
Protein-Protein 11 [view]
Protein-DNA 14 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 41 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005149 interleukin-1 receptor binding
GO:0005178 integrin binding
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding
Biological Process
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity
GO:0001660 fever generation
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0009743 response to carbohydrate
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0010575 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0010718 positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
GO:0010829 negative regulation of glucose transport
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0030213 hyaluronan biosynthetic process
GO:0030335 positive regulation of cell migration
GO:0030593 neutrophil chemotaxis
GO:0030730 sequestering of triglyceride
GO:0031622 positive regulation of fever generation
GO:0031663 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032308 positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0032611 interleukin-1 beta production
GO:0032635 interleukin-6 production
GO:0032725 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production
GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production
GO:0032757 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production
GO:0033198 response to ATP
GO:0034116 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion
GO:0035234 ectopic germ cell programmed cell death
GO:0035505 positive regulation of myosin light chain kinase activity
GO:0035690 cellular response to drug
GO:0042102 positive regulation of T cell proliferation
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0043122 regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043123 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043407 negative regulation of MAP kinase activity
GO:0043491 protein kinase B signaling
GO:0045080 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process
GO:0045086 positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process
GO:0045410 positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process
GO:0045429 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
GO:0045766 positive regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0045833 negative regulation of lipid metabolic process
GO:0045840 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0046330 positive regulation of JNK cascade
GO:0046627 negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway
GO:0050691 regulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0050766 positive regulation of phagocytosis
GO:0050796 regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0050805 negative regulation of synaptic transmission
GO:0050900 leukocyte migration
GO:0050995 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process
GO:0050996 positive regulation of lipid catabolic process
GO:0050999 regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
GO:0051044 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis
GO:0051091 positive regulation of DNA binding transcription factor activity
GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
GO:0051781 positive regulation of cell division
GO:0060559 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity
GO:0070164 negative regulation of adiponectin secretion
GO:0070372 regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
GO:0070487 monocyte aggregation
GO:0071260 cellular response to mechanical stimulus
GO:0071310 cellular response to organic substance
GO:0071407 cellular response to organic cyclic compound
GO:0071639 positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production
GO:0097192 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand
GO:1900745 positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade
GO:1903140 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier
GO:2000778 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion
GO:2001240 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005764 lysosome
GO:0005776 autophagosome
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0030141 secretory granule
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle
GO:0031982 vesicle
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome
No orthologs found for this gene
CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling pathway
Interleukin-1 processing pathway
Innate Immune System pathway
CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway pathway
Signaling by Interleukins pathway
Cytokine Signaling in Immune system pathway
Interleukin-1 signaling pathway
Immune System pathway
Interleukin-1 family signaling pathway
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) pathway
MAPK signaling pathway pathway
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway
NF-kappa B signaling pathway pathway
Necroptosis pathway
Osteoclast differentiation pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway pathway
C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway pathway
Hematopoietic cell lineage pathway
IL-17 signaling pathway pathway
Th17 cell differentiation pathway
TNF signaling pathway pathway
Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels pathway
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications pathway
Type I diabetes mellitus pathway
Alzheimer's disease pathway
Prion diseases pathway
Salmonella infection pathway
Pertussis pathway
Legionellosis pathway
Leishmaniasis pathway
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) pathway
African trypanosomiasis pathway
Malaria pathway
Amoebiasis pathway
Tuberculosis pathway
Measles pathway
Influenza A pathway
Herpes simplex infection pathway
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathway
Rheumatoid arthritis pathway
Graft-versus-host disease pathway
Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis pathway
GPCR signaling-cholera toxin-.owl pathway
IL-1 JNK.owl pathway
IL-1 p38.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha s Epac and ERK-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-pertussis toxin-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha q-.owl pathway
IL-1 NFkB.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha i-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha s PKA and ERK-.owl pathway
SwissProt P10749
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 16176
RefSeq NM_008361 XM_006498795
MGI ID MGI:96543
MGI Symbol Il1b
EMBL AY902319 BC011437 CH466519 M15131 X04964
GenPept AAA39276 AAH11437 AAX90604 CAA28637 EDL28238
RNA Seq Atlas 16176