|Mus musculus Gene: Tlr2|
|Last Modified||2018-06-05 [Report errors or provide feedback]|
|Gene Name||toll-like receptor 2|
toll-like receptor 2
|Useful resources||Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen|
Tlr2 expression in astrocytes is induced by TNF alpha and NF Kappa B-dependent pathways.
Tlr2 recognition of Staphylococcal peptidoglycan leads to induction of beta-defensin-2.
Tlr2 is involved in Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) recognition and subsequent innate immune activation by promoting neutrophil migration and dendritic cell activation within the lung.
Tlr4, Tlr2, or Tlr3 cooperate with proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) for activation of nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent signaling in mucosal epithelial cell lines.
Tlr2 is a signaling receptor that is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a response that depends on LPS-binding protein and is enhanced by CD14.
Tlr2 is a signal transducer for soluble Peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in addition to LPS.
Tlr2 recognizes Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components, leading to the activation of the innate immune system.
Tlr2 is a molecular link between microbial products, apoptosis, and host defense mechanisms.
TLR2/MyD88/PI3K/Rac1/Akt pathway mediates the activation of LTA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn initiates the activation of NF-kappaB, and ultimately induces cPLA2/COX-2-dependent PGE2 and IL-6 generation.
Tlr2 and Tlr4 activate murine macrophages and this is negatively regulated by a Lyn/PI3K module and promoted by SHIP1.
Tlr2 is a molecular link between increased dietary lipid intake and the regulation of glucose homeostasis, via regulation of energy substrate utilization and tissue inflammation.
Tlr2 activation induces type I interferon responses from endolysosomal compartments where it is translocated to upon ligand engagement.
Tlr2 and Myd88-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Rac1 activation facilitates the phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by murine macrophages.
Tlr1 :: Tlr2 dimeric pairs recognize malarial glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI) to initiates intracellular signalling and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Tlr2 recognizes Thermus aquaticus extracellular polysacchride, YT-1, and induces the production of cytokines TNF and IL6 in peritoneal macrophages.
Tlr2::Tlr6 synergistically interacts with Tlr9 in lung epithelium to induce rapid pathogen killing, and can be used as a therapeutic target to treat otherwise lethal pneumonia.
Tlr2 is activated by gut commensal microbe, Bacteroides fragilis, to establish host-microbial symbiosis by promoting immunological tolerance.
Tlr2 and Tnfsf11 signalling pathways are modulated by Porphromonas gingivalis to alter the differentiation states of osteoclasts resulting in bacteria-mediated bone loss.
Tlr2 is expressed by Muller cells, principal glia of retina, and is responsible for generating robust bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureusand contributing to retinal innate defence.
Tlr2 is required for rapid inflammasome activation in response to infection by cytosolic bacterial pathogens such as Francisella novicida.
Tlr2-driven integration of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Wnt-beta-Catenin and Notch1 signalling contributes to its capacity to regulate a battery of genes associated with T regulatory cell lineage commitment and towards modulation of defined set of effector functions in macrophages.
Tlr2 directly recognizes glycogen, resulting in the activation of immunocytes such as macrophages to enhance the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines.
Tlr2 and Tlr4 are crucial for in vivo recognition of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Tlr2/4 double-deficient mice were unable to control pneumonia caused by C. pneumoniae.
Tlr2 signalling promotes protective vaccine-enhancing Th17 cell responses when cells are stimulated with early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6) expressed by the virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv but not by tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-GuĂ©rin (BCG).
Tlr2 recognizes Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv cell surface lipoprotein MPT83, which induces the production of Tnf, Il6, and Il12b cytokines by macrophages and upregulates macrophage function.
Mycobacterium abscessus glycopeptidolipid (GPL) prevents Tlr2-mediate induction of Il8 and Defb4a in respiratory epithelial cells. (Demonstrated in human)
Tlr2 is expressed in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal smooth muscle layers. Its absence induces architectural and neurochemical coding changes in the ENS, leading to gut dysmotility and to higher inflammatory bowel diseases susceptibility
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Î?msbB that possesses a modified lipid A triggers exacerbated colitis in the absence of Nod1 and/or Nod2, which is likely due to increased Tlr2 stimulation.
Adaptor proteins Ticam1 and Ticam2 have a novel function in Tlr2-mediated signal transduction.
Retinoic acid treatment enhances Tlr2-dependent Il10 production from T cells and this, in turn, potentiates T regulatory cell generation without the need for activation of antigen presenting cells.
Proline-proline-glutamic acid 57 (PPE57), located on the mycobacterial cell surface, induces a T helper 1 immune response via Tlr2-mediated macrophage functions.
Tlr2 is essential for the immune responses to cholera vaccination.
Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 (SSL3) interferes with Tlr2 activation at two stages. First by binding to Tlr2 and blocking ligand binding and second by interacting with an already formed Tlr2-lipopeptide complex, thus preventing TLR heterodimerization and downstream signalling.
Peli3 is involved in endotoxin tolerance and functions as a negative regulator of Tlr2/4 signalling.
Cytokine activation as a result of Tlr2 stimulation is mediated by the phagosomal trafficking molecule Ap3b1 (AP-3).
|Summary||Currently no Entrez Summary Available. You might want to check the Summary Sections of the Orthologs.|
|Genomic Location||Chromosome 3:83836272-83841767|
|Number of Interactions||
This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 15 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 57 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
|No orthologs found for this gene|
PI3K-Akt signaling pathway pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) pathway
Hepatitis B pathway
Herpes simplex infection pathway
Proteoglycans in cancer pathway
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathway
Rheumatoid arthritis pathway
|UniProt Splice Variant|
|RNA Seq Atlas||24088|