|Mus musculus Gene: Tlr9|
|Last Modified||2018-06-05 [Report errors or provide feedback]|
|Gene Name||Toll-like receptor 9|
Toll-like receptor 9
|Useful resources||Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen|
Tlr9 binds CpG DNA and induces dendritic cell maturation in a MyD88-dependent manner in mice.
Tlr9 engages in signalling crosstalk with Tlr4 during activation, and as a result, amplifies the inflammatory response of murine macrophages.
Tlr9, 7, and 3 interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein Unc93b and this is essential for proper TLR signaling.
Tlr9 signalling enhances the rate of acidification of the Salmonella-containing phagosome, and this acidification induces the expression of Salmonella pathogenecity genes that are necessary for intracellular survival, growth, and systemic infection. Tlr9 deficiency rescues the high Salmonella susceptibility phenotype observed in Tlr2,Tlr4 double mutant mice.
Tlr9 triggers plasmacytoid dendritic cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients upon recognition of self-antigens such as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). (Demonstrated in human)
Tlr9 requires proteolytic processing in endolysosome by asparagine endopeptidase and cathepsin in the endolysosome to initiate signalling in response to DNA.
Tlr9 deficiency reduced pancreatic edema, inflammation and pro-Il1b expression in pacreatitis.
Tlr9 synergistically interacts with Tlr2::Tlr6 in lung epithelium to induce rapid pathogen killing, and can be used as a therapeutic target to treat otherwise lethal pneumonia.
Tlr9 is proteolytically cleaved in the endosome to form a soluble Tlr9 (sTlr9), which inhibits Tlr9-dependent signalling and contributes to the prevention of autoimmune disease.
Tlr9 activation is enhanced by increased levels of circulating histones, serving as a crucial link between initial damage and activation of innate immunity during sterile inflammation
Tlr9 promotes macrophage Hif1a levels, oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in response to group A Streptococcus (GAS), contributing to GAS clearance in vivo in both localized cutaneous and systemic infection models.
Tlr9 is selectively compartmentalized to fungal phagosomes and negatively modulates macrophage anti-fungal effector functions.
Tlr9 expression and signalling capacity oscillates with the circadian clock.
Mitochondrial DNA that escapes from autophagy induces Tlr9 inflammatory responses in cardiomyocytes and is capable of inducing myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy.
TLR9 activation by endogenous self-ligands generated during oxidative stress promotes platelet hyper-reactivity and thrombosis.
Tlr9 contributes to the control of activated endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-induced tumours.
The N-terminal region of TLR9 is cleaved in the endolysosome to form an intracellular DNA sensor with the C-terminal TLR9.
Mir126-Kdr axis is an important regulator of the innate response. Mir126 controls the survival and function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and regulates gene expression of Tlr7, Tlr9, Nfkb1 and Kdr.
Dnase2a is required for Tlr9 activation by bacterial genomic DNA.
Tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for Tlr9 protein stability and signalling.
Tlr9 activation requires a single CpG positioned 4-6 nucleotides from the 5'-end and this activation is augmented by a 5'TCC sequence one to three nucleotides from the CG.
|Summary||Currently no Entrez Summary Available. You might want to check the Summary Sections of the Orthologs.|
|Genomic Location||Chromosome 9:106222598-106226883|
|Number of Interactions||
This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 20 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
|No orthologs found for this gene|
Toll-Like Receptors Cascades pathway
Signaling by Insulin receptor pathway
TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation in TLR7/8 or 9 signaling pathway
Innate Immune System pathway
Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) pathway
Trafficking and processing of endosomal TLR pathway
MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome pathway
Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade pathway
IGF1R signaling cascade pathway
IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R pathway
PI3K Cascade pathway
Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases pathway
Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade pathway
Immune System pathway
Signal Transduction pathway
Insulin receptor signalling cascade pathway
IRS-mediated signalling pathway
TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) pathway
African trypanosomiasis pathway
Herpes simplex infection pathway
|UniProt Splice Variant|
|RNA Seq Atlas|